1-Rootstock’s speciality of dwarfness (Genetic). They are also called clonal rootstocks. They are categorized according to their dwarfness levels: Dwarfs: M9: (requires support;reaches up to 2.5 m; gives good results at low temperatures; resistant to crown rot disease and vulnerable to bacterial crown gall:

M26: Consists of trees slightly bigger than M9 Semi-dwarf rootstocks: M7, MM106: Normal seedlings form trees as big as 50% of the trees. This tree is quite resistant to fire blight disease. There are other strong rootstocks such as M2, M111, M16, M15, M25, M109, and MM104...

2- Variety’s Speciality of Dwarfness: They are varieties that grow dwarf. They are called spur varieties. For instance: Spurstarkcrimson, Spurstark Golden etc. Gardnes should not be formed with seedlings which are grafted on dwarf rootstocks with spur varieties. Studies show that it reduces yield and quality.

1-Labour is reduced and facilitated in pruning. However; it requires more care and knowledge. Otherwise; significant losses will be suffered.
2-Investment costs are high in early years. However; such costs are amortized in early years with early fruit bearing.
3-Well-pollenated due to high density plantation. Therefore; regular crop is obtained annually.
4-Since yield is obtained and profit is made immediately after plantation; new types and varieties that can adapt to changing market demands may be cultivated
5-Since pest control, thinning and harvest is made on-site; production cost is reduced and labour saving is made.
6-Since shading is eliminated in addition to abundant yield and high quality of fruits; a good and uniform colouring is achieved.
7-It requires more knowledge and experience in all fields of cultivation (pruning, irrigation, fertilizing etc.)

1-With a good planning; seedlings which are suitable rootstocks on which varieties demanded by the market are grafted should be obtained.
2-Suitable fertilization programme and plant spacing should be determined as per soil analysis results.
3-Support system (wire-stake) should be fitted before or after plantation while establishing a dwarf apple garden and each seedling should be given a 1.5m-stake.
4-Since roots are superficial and crunchy in dwarf apple gardens; soil should not be tilted with tools or machinery. It is important to prevent weed growth by means of herbicides or mulching:
5-Old pruning habits should be given up and pruning should be performed as per technical staff recommendations (branch thinning, end cutting, angle widening and tying should be done instead of shape and yield pruning)
6-Irrigation should be performed through drip irrigation or sprinkling method.
7-Lines should always be in north-south direction.